Camponotus floridanus

Colonies of this ant species are monogynous, i.e., contain a single-mated queen. Colonies are founded claustrally (i.e. queens seclude themselves in a chamber where they produce the first brood of workers entirely from body resources). Lab colonies may reach a size of about 8500 workers, while field colonies often reach sizes much above that. Queens are substantially larger than workers, which show a dimorphic size distribution with allometric size differences. Large workers are generally referred to as majors while small workers are considered minors. Workers do not reproduce in the presence of the queen, although they do when isolated in groups for more than 60 days. Due to haplodiploidy, the unfertilized eggs of workers develop into males.


Harpegnathos saltator

Colonies of this species are founded by single queens that mated once. During the production of the first brood, and sometime afterwards, queens go hunting to provision brood. After the first brood is produced her hunting trips will be reduced and finally stopped completely. When the first males are produced, workers will mate with their brothers. They can do this, because in this species workers still possess a spermatheca, which allows them to store sperm just like queens.  When the queen dies, up to 70% of the workers will engage in fights for reproductive dominance. Over a period of two to three months a group of workers (about 10% of the colony) will successfully become reproductive and thus assure the continuation of the colony. The interactions for dominance are composed of dueling (a ritualized form of aggression without winner or loser), policing (an attack by usually subordinate workers directed to individuals with activated ovaries that subsequently results in the inhibition of the attacked individual), and biting (the typical dominance behavior of high ranking individuals directed to subordinates).

 

Zootermopsis nevadensis

This dampwood termite lives in single piece of wood without foraging outside. This contrasts with another form of termite organization that is associated with external foraging and building of nest structures. Colonies are founded by a  queen and king pair. Larval instars have legs and the later instars are considered the work force of the colony. Later in development, larvae will develop into either soldiers, alate sexuals, or they may become secondary reproductives (neotenics) when the queen or king dies.